APPENDIX C - MATCH RACING RULES

Match races shall be sailed under The Racing Rules of Sailing as changed by this appendix. Matches shall be umpired unless the notice of race and sailing instructions state otherwise.

Note: A Standard Notice of Race, Standard Sailing Instructions, and Match Racing Rules for Blind Competitors are available at the ISAF website.

C1 TERMINOLOGY

‘Competitor’ means the skipper, team or boat as appropriate for the event. ‘Flight’ means two or more matches started in the same starting sequence.

C2 CHANGES TO THE DEFINITIONS AND THE RULES OF PARTS 2 AND 4

C2.1 The definition Finish is changed to

A boat finishes when any part of her hull crosses the finishing line in the direction of the course from the last mark after completing any penalties. However, when penalties are cancelled under rule C7.2(d) after one or both boats have finished each shall be recorded as finished when she crossed the line.

C2.2 Add to the definition Proper Course: ‘A boat taking a penalty or manoeuvring to take a penalty is not sailing a proper course.’

C2.3 In the definition Zone the distance is changed to two hull lengths.

C2.4 Rule 13 is changed to
13 WHILE TACKING OR GYBING
13.1 After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course.
13.2 After the foot of the mainsail of a boat sailing downwind crosses the centreline she shall keep clear of other boats until her mainsail has filled or she is no longer sailing downwind .
13.3 While rule 13.1 or 13.2 applies, rules 10, 11 and 12 do not. However, if two boats are subject to rule 13.1 or 13.2 at the same time, the one on the other’s port side or the one astern shall keep clear.

C2.5 Rule 16.2 is deleted.

C2.6 Rule 18.2(e) is changed to: ‘If a boat obtained an inside overlap and, from the time the overlap began, the outside boat has been unable to give mark-room, she is not required to give it.’

C2.7 Rule 18.3 is changed to:
If a boat in the zone passes head to wind and is then on the same tack as a boat that is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not thereafter apply between them. If, once the boat that changed tack has completed her tack,
(a) the other boat cannot by luffing avoid becoming overlapped inside her, she is entitled to mark-room ;
(b) the other boat can by luffing avoid becoming overlapped inside her, the boat that changed tack is entitled to mark-room.

C2.8 When rule 20 applies, the following arm signals by the helmsman are required in addition to the hails:
(a) for ‘Room to tack’, repeatedly and clearly pointing to windward; and
(b) for ‘You tack’, repeatedly and clearly pointing at the other boat and waving the arm to windward.

C2.9 Rule 22.3 is changed to: ‘A boat moving astern through the water shall keep clear of one that is not.’
C2.10 Rule 24.1 is changed to: ‘If reasonably possible, a boat not racing shall not interfere with a boat that is racing or an umpire boat.’

C2.11 Add new rule 24.3: ‘When boats in different matches meet, any change of course by either boat shall be consistent with complying with a rule or trying to win her own match.’

C2.12 Add to the preamble of Part 4: ‘Rule 42 shall also apply between the warning and preparatory signals.’

C2.13 Rule 42.2(d) is changed to: ‘sculling: repeated movement of the helm to propel the boat forward;’.

C3 RACE SIGNALS AND CHANGES TO RELATED RULES

C3.1 Starting Signals

The signals for starting a match shall be as follows. Times shall be taken from the visual signals; the failure of a sound signal shall be disregarded. If more than one match will be sailed, the starting signal for one match shall be the warning signal for the next match.

Time in minutes

Visual signal

Sound signal

Means

10

Flag F displayed

One

Attention signal

6

Flag F removed

None

 

5

Numeral pennant displayed*

One

Warning signal

4

Flag P displayed

One

Preparatory signal

2

Blue or yellow flag or both displayed**

One**

End of pre-start entry time

1

Flag P removed

One long

 

0

Warning and preparatory signals removed

One

Starting signal

*Within a flight, numeral pennant 1 means Match 1, pennant 2 means Match 2, etc., unless the sailing instructions state otherwise.

** These signals shall be made only if one or both boats fail to comply with rule C4.2. The flag(s) shall be displayed until the umpires have signalled a penalty or for one minute, whichever is earlier.

C3.2 Changes to Related Rules

(a) Rule 29.1 is changed to

(1) When at a boat's starting signal any part of her hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or one of its extensions, the race committee shall promptly display a blue or yellow flag identifying the boat with one sound. The flag shall be displayed until the boat is completely on the pre-start side of the starting line or one of its extensions or until two minutes after her starting signal, whichever is earlier.

(2) When after her starting signal a boat sails from the pre-start side to the course side of the starting line across an extension without having started correctly , the race committee shall promptly display a blue or yellow flag identifying the boat. The flag shall be displayed until the boat is completely on the pre-start side of the starting line or one of its extensions or until two minutes after her starting signal, whichever is earlier.

(b) In the race signal AP the last sentence is changed to ‘The attention signal will be made 1 minute after removal unless at that time the race is postponed again or abandoned.’

(c) In the race signal N the last sentence is changed to ‘The attention signal will be made 1 minute after removal unless at that time the race is abandoned again or postponed.’

C3.3 Finishing Line Signals

The race signal Blue flag or shape shall not be used.

C4 REQUIREMENTS BEFORE THE START

C4.1 At her preparatory signal, each boat shall be outside the line that is at a 90° angle to the starting line through the starting mark at her assigned end. In the race schedule pairing list, the boat listed on the left-hand side is assigned the port end and shall display a blue flag at her stern while racing. The other boat is assigned the starboard end and shall display a yellow flag at her stern while racing.

C4.2 Within the two-minute period following her preparatory signal, a boat shall cross and clear the starting line, the first time from the course side to the pre-start side.

C5 SIGNALS BY UMPIRES

C5.1 A green and white flag with one long sound means ‘No penalty.’

C5.2 A blue or yellow flag identifying a boat with one long sound means ‘The identified boat shall take a penalty by complying with rule C7.’

C5.3 A red flag with or soon after a blue or yellow flag with one long sound means ‘The identified boat shall take a penalty by complying with rule C7.3(d).’

C5.4 A black flag with a blue or yellow flag and one long sound means ‘The identified boat is disqualified, and the match is terminated and awarded to the other boat.’

C5.5 One short sound means ‘A penalty is now completed.’

C5.6 Repetitive short sounds mean ‘A boat is no longer taking a penalty and the penalty remains.’

C5.7 A blue or yellow flag or shape displayed from an umpire boat means ‘The identified boat has an outstanding penalty.’

C6 PROTESTS AND REQUESTS FOR REDRESS BY BOATS

C6.1 A boat may protest another boat

(a) under a rule of Part 2, except rule 14, by clearly displaying flag Y immediately after an incident in which she was involved;

(b) under any rule not listed in rule C6.1(a) or C6.2 by clearly displaying a red flag as soon as possible after the incident.

C6.2 A boat may not protest another boat under

(a) rule 14, unless damage or injury results;

(b) a rule of Part 2, unless she was involved in the incident;

(c) rule 31 or 42; or

(d) rule C4 or C7.

C6.3 A boat intending to request redress because of circumstances that arise before she finishes or retires shall clearly display a red flag as soon as possible after she becomes aware of those circumstances, but not later than two minutes after finishing or retiring.

C6.4 (a) A boat protesting under rule C6.1(a) shall remove flag Y before or as soon as possible after the umpires' signal.

(b) A boat protesting under rule C6.1(b) or requesting redress under rule C6.3 shall, for her protest or request to be valid, keep her red flag displayed until she has so informed the umpires after finishing or retiring. No written protest or request for redress is required.

C6.5 Umpire Decisions

(a) After flag Y is displayed, the umpires shall decide whether to penalize any boat. They shall signal their decision in compliance with rule C5.1, C5.2 or C5.3. However, when the umpires penalize a boat under rule C8.2 and in the same incident there is a flag Y from a boat, the umpires may disregard the flag Y .

(b) The red-flag penalty in rule C5.3 shall be used when a boat has gained a controlling position as a result of breaking a rule, but the umpires are not certain that the conditions for an additional umpire-initiated penalty have been fulfilled.

C6.6 Protest Committee Decisions

(a) The protest committee may take evidence in any way it considers appropriate and may communicate its decision orally.

(b) If the protest committee decides that a breach of a rule has had no significant effect on the outcome of the match, it may

(1) impose a penalty of one point or part of one point;

(2) order a resail; or

(3) make another arrangement it decides is equitable, which may be to impose no penalty.

(c) The penalty for breaking rule 14 when damage or injury results will be at the discretion of the protest committee, and may include exclusion from further races in the event.

C7 PENALTY SYSTEM

C7.1 Deleted Rule

Rules 44 is deleted.

C7.2 All Penalties

(a) A penalized boat may delay taking a penalty within the limitations of rule C7.3 and shall take it as follows:

(1) When on a leg of the course to a windward mark, she shall gybe and, as soon as reasonably possible, luff to a close-hauled course.

(2) When on a leg of the course to a leeward mark or the finishing line, she shall tack and, as soon as reasonably possible, bear away to a course that is more than ninety degrees from the true wind.

(b) Add to rule 2: ‘When racing, a boat need not take a penalty unless signalled to do so by an umpire.’

(c) A boat completes a leg of the course when her bow crosses the extension of the line from the previous mark through the mark she is rounding, or on the last leg when she finishes.

(d) A penalized boat shall not be recorded as having finished until she takes her penalty and sails completely to the course side of the line and then finishes, unless the penalty is cancelled before or after she crosses the finishing line.

(e) If a boat has one or two outstanding penalties and the other boat in her match is penalized, one penalty for each boat shall be cancelled except that a red-flag penalty shall not cancel or be cancelled by another penalty.

(f) If a boat has more than two outstanding penalties, the umpires shall signal her disqualification under rule C5.4.

C7.3 Penalty Limitations

(a) A boat taking a penalty that includes a tack shall have the spinnaker head below the main-boom gooseneck from the time she passes head to wind until she is on a close-hauled course.

(b) No part of a penalty may be taken inside the zone of a rounding mark that begins, bounds or ends the leg the boat is on.

(c) If a boat has one outstanding penalty, she may take the penalty any time after starting and before finishing. If a boat has two outstanding penalties, she shall take one of them as soon as reasonably possible, but not before starting.

(d) When the umpires display a red flag with or soon after a penalty flag, the penalized boat shall take a penalty as soon as reasonably possible, but not before starting.

C7.4 Taking and Completing Penalties

(a) When a boat with an outstanding penalty is on a leg to a windward mark and gybes, or is on a leg to a leeward mark or the finishing line and passes head to wind, she is taking a penalty.

(b) When a boat taking a penalty either does not take the penalty correctly or does not complete the penalty as soon as reasonably possible, she is no longer taking a penalty. The umpires shall signal this as required by rule C5.6.

(c) The umpire boat for each match shall display blue or yellow flags or shapes, each flag or shape indicating one outstanding penalty. When a boat has taken a penalty, or a penalty has been cancelled, one flag or shape shall be removed, with the appropriate sound signal. Failure of the umpires to signal correctly shall not change the number of penalties outstanding .

C8 PENALTIES INITIATED BY UMPIRES

C8.1 Rule Changes

(a) Rules 60.2(a) and 60.3(a) do not apply to rules for which penalties may be imposed by umpires.

(b) Rule 64.1(a) is changed so that the provision for exonerating a boat may be applied by the umpires without a hearing, and it takes precedence over any conflicting rule of this appendix.

C8.2 When the umpires decide that a boat has broken rule 31, 42, C4, C7.3(c) or C7.3(d) she shall be penalized by signalling her under rule C5.2 or C5.3. However, if a boat is penalized for breaking a rule of Part 2 and if she in the same incident breaks rule 31, she shall not be penalized for breaking rule 31. Furthermore, a boat that displays an incorrect flag or does not display the correct flag shall be warned orally and given an opportunity to correct the error before being penalized.

C8.3 When the umpires decide that a boat has

(a) gained an advantage by breaking a rule after allowing for a penalty,

(b) deliberately broken a rule, or

(c) committed a breach of sportsmanship,

she shall be penalized under rule C5.2, C5.3 or C5.4.

C8.4 If the umpires or protest committee members decide that a boat may have broken a rule other than those listed in rules C6.1(a) and C6.2, they shall so inform the protest committee for its action under rule 60.3 and rule C6.6 when appropriate.

C8.5 When, after one boat has started, the umpires are satisfied that the other boat will not start, they may signal under rule C5.4 that the boat that did not start is disqualified and the match is terminated.

C8.6 When the match umpires, together with at least one other umpire, decide that a boat has broken rule 14 and damage resulted, they may impose a points-penalty without a hearing. The competitor shall be informed of the penalty as soon as practicable and, at the time of being so informed, may request a hearing. The protest committee shall then proceed under rule C6.6. Any penalty decided by the protest committee may be more than the penalty imposed by the umpires. When the umpires decide that a penalty greater than one point is appropriate, they shall act under rule C8.4 .

C9 REQUESTS FOR REDRESS OR REOPENING; APPEALS; OTHER PROCEEDINGS

C9.1 There shall be no request for redress or an appeal from a decision made under rule C5, C6, C7 or C8. In rule 66 the third sentence is changed to ‘A party to the hearing may not ask for a reopening.’

C9.2 A competitor may not base a request for redress on a claim that an action by an official boat was improper. The protest committee may decide to consider giving redress in such circumstances but only if it believes that an official boat, including an umpire boat, may have seriously interfered with a competing boat.

C9.3 No proceedings of any kind may be taken in relation to any action or non-action by the umpires, except as permitted in rule C9.2.

C10 SCORING

C10.1 The winning competitor of each match scores one point (half ae point each for a dead heat); the loser scores no points.

C10.2 When a competitor withdraws from part of an event the scores of all completed races shall stand.

C10.3 When a single round robin is terminated before completion, or a multiple round robin is terminated during the first round robin, a competitor's score shall be the average points scored per match sailed by the competitor. However, if any of the competitors have completed less than one third of the scheduled matches, the entire round robin shall be disregarded and, if necessary, the event declared void. For the purposes of tie-breaking in rule C11.1(a), a competitor’s score shall be the average points scored per match between the tied competitors .

C10.4 When a multiple round robin is terminated with an incomplete round robin, only one point shall be available for all the matches sailed between any two competitors, as follows:

Number of matches completed between any two competitors

Points for each win

1

One point

2

Half a point

3

A third of a point

(etc.)

 

C10.5 In a round-robin series,

(a) competitors shall be placed in order of their total scores, highest score first;

(b) a competitor who has won a match but is disqualified for breaking a rule against a competitor in another match shall lose the point for that match (but the losing competitor shall not be awarded the point); and

(c) the overall position between competitors who have sailed in different groups shall be decided by the highest score.

C10.6 In a knockout series the sailing instructions shall state the minimum number of points required to win a series between two competitors. When a knockout series is terminated it shall be decided in favour of the competitor with the higher score.

C11 TIES

C11.1 Round-Robin Series

In a round-robin series competitors are assigned to one or more groups and scheduled to sail against all other competitors in their group one or more times. Each separate stage identified in the event format shall be a separate round-robin series irrespective of the number of times each competitor sails against each other competitor in that stage.

Ties between two or more competitors in a round-robin series shall be broken by the following methods, in order, until all ties are broken. When one or more ties are only partially broken, rules C11.1(a) to C11.1(e) shall be reapplied to them. Ties shall be decided in favour of the competitor(s) who

(a) placed in order, has the highest score in the matches between the tied competitors.

(b) when the tie is between two competitors in a multiple round robin, has won the last match between the two competitors.

(c) has the most points against the competitor placed highest in the round-robin series or, if necessary, second highest, and so on until the tie is broken. When two separate ties have to be resolved but the resolution of each depends upon resolving the other, the following principles shall be used in the rule C11.1(c) procedure:

(1) the higher-place tie shall be resolved before the lower- place tie, and

(2) all the competitors in the lower-place tie shall be treated as a single competitor for the purposes of rule C11.1(c).

(d) after applying rule C10.4(c), has the highest place in the different groups, irrespective of the number of competitors in each group.

(e) has the highest place in the most recent stage of the event (fleet race, round robin, etc.).

C11.2 Knockout Series

Ties (including 00) between two competitors in a knockout series shall be broken by the following methods, in order, until the tie is broken. The tie shall be decided in favour of the competitor who

(a) has the highest place in the most recent round-robin series, applying rule C11.1 if necessary;

(b) has won the most recent match in the event between the tied competitors.

C11.3 Remaining Ties

When rule C11.1 or C11.2 does not resolve a tie,

(a) if the tie needs to be resolved for a later stage of the event (or another event for which the event is a direct qualifier), the tie shall be broken by a sail-off when practicable. When the race committee decides that a sail-off is not practicable, the tie shall be decided in favour of the competitor who has the highest score in the round-robin series after eliminating the score for the first race for each tied competitor or, should this fail to break the tie, the second race for each tied competitor and so on until the tie is broken. When a tie is partially resolved, the remaining tie shall be broken by reapplying rule C11.1 or C11.2.

(b) to decide the winner of an event that is not a direct qualifier for another event, or the overall position between competitors eliminated in one round of a knockout series, a sail-off may be used (but not a draw).

(c) when a tie is not broken any monetary prizes or ranking points for tied places shall be added together and divided equally among the tied competitors.

Note: A Standard Notice of Race and Standard Sailing Instructions for match racing are available from the ISAF.