APPENDIX D - TEAM RACING RULES

Team races shall be sailed under The Racing Rules of Sailing as changed by this appendix. If umpires will be used the sailing instructions shall so state.

D1 CHANGES TO THE RACING RULES
D1.1 Definitions and the Rules of Parts 2 and 4

(a) In the definition Zone the distance is changed to two hull lengths.

(b) Rule 18.2(b) is changed to:
If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches the zone, the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reaches the zone, or she later becomes clear ahead when another boat passes head to wind, the boat clear astern at that moment shall thereafter give her mark-room.

(c) Rule 18.4 is deleted.

(d) When rule 20 applies the following arm signals by the helmsman are required in addition to the hails:
(1) for ‘Room to tack’, repeatedly and clearly pointing to windward; and
(2) for ‘You tack’, repeatedly and clearly pointing at the other boat and waving the arm to windward.
Sailing instructions may delete this requirement.

(e) Add new rule 24.3: ‘A boat that has finished shall not act to interfere with a boat that has not finished.’

(f) Add new rule 24.4: ‘When boats in different races meet, any change of course by either boat shall be consistent with complying with a rule or trying to win her own race.’

(g) Add to rule 41:
(e) help from another boat on her team provided electronic communication is not used.
(h) Rule 45 is deleted.

D1.2 Protests and Requests for Redress
(a) Rule 60.1 is changed to:
A boat may
(a) protest another boat, but not for an alleged breach of a rule of Part 2 unless she was involved in the incident or the incident involved contact between members of the other team; or
(b) request redress.

(b) Rule 61.1(a) is changed so that a boat may remove her red flag after it has been conspicuously displayed.

(c) A boat intending to request redress for an incident in the racing area shall display a red flag at the first reasonable opportunity after the incident. She shall display the red flag until it is acknowledged by the race committee or by an umpire.

(d) The race committee or protest committee shall not protest a boat for breaking a rule of Part 2 or rule 31 or 42 except
(1) based on evidence in a report from an umpire after a black and white flag has been displayed; or
(2) under rule 14 upon receipt of a report from any source alleging damage or injury.

(e) Protests and requests for redress need not be in writing. The protest committee may take evidence in any way it considers appropriate and may communicate its decision orally.

(f) A boat is not entitled to redress based on damage or injury caused by another boat on her team.

(g) When a supplied boat suffers a breakdown, rule D5 applies.

D1.3 Penalties
(a) Rule 44.1 is changed to:
A boat may take a One-Turn Penalty when she may have broken one or more rules of Part 2, or rule 31 or 42, in an incident while racing. However, when she may have broken a rule of Part 2 and rule 31 in the same incident she need not take the penalty for breaking rule 31.

(b) A boat may take a penalty by retiring, in which case she shall notify the race committee as soon as possible and 6 points shall be added to her score.

(c) There shall be no penalty for breaking a rule of Part 2 when the incident is between boats on the same team and there is no contact.

D2 UMPIRED RACES
D2.1 When Rule D2 Applies

Rule D2 applies to umpired races. Races to be umpired shall be identified either in the sailing instructions or by the display of flag U no later than the warning signal.

D2.2 Protests by Boats
When a boat protests under a rule of Part 2 or under rule 31 or 42 for an incident in the racing area, she is not entitled to a hearing and the following applies:

(a) She shall hail ‘Protest’ and conspicuously display a red flag at the first reasonable opportunity for each.

(b) The boats shall be given time to respond. A boat involved in the incident may respond by promptly taking an appropriate penalty or clearly indicating that she will do so as soon as possible.

(c) If no boat takes a penalty, an umpire shall decide whether to penalize any boat.

(d) If more than one boat broke a rule and was not exonerated, an umpire may penalize any boat that broke a rule and did not take an appropriate penalty.

(e) An umpire shall signal a decision in compliance with rule D2.4.

(f) A boat penalized by an umpire shall take a Two-Turns Penalty.

D2.3 Penalties Initiated by an Umpire
An umpire may penalize a boat without a protest by another boat, or report the incident to the protest committee, or both, when the boat

(a) breaks rule 31 or 42 and does not take a penalty;

(b) breaks a rule of Part 2 and makes contact with another boat on her team or with a boat in another race, and no boat takes a penalty;

(c) breaks a rule and her team gains an advantage despite her, or another boat on her team, taking a penalty;

(d) breaks rule 14 and there is damage or injury;

(e) clearly indicates that she will take a One-Turn Penalty, and then fails to do so;

(f) fails to take a penalty signalled by an umpire;

(g) commits a breach of sportsmanship.

The umpire shall signal a decision in compliance with rule D2.4. A boat penalized by an umpire shall take a Two-Turns Penalty except that, when an umpire hails a number of turns, the boat shall take that number of One-Turn Penalties.

D2.4 Signals by an Umpire
An umpire shall signal a decision with one long sound and the display of a flag as follows:

(a) For no penalty, a green and white flag.

(b) To penalize one or more boats, a red flag. The umpire shall hail or signal to identify each boat penalized.

(c) To report the incident to the protest committee, a black and white flag.

D2.5 Two-Flag Protest Procedure
This rule applies only if the sailing instructions so state and it then replaces rule D2.2.
When a boat protests under a rule of Part 2 or under rule 31 or 42 for an incident in the racing area, she is not entitled to a hearing and the following applies:

(a) She shall hail ‘Protest’ and conspicuously display a red flag at the first reasonable opportunity for each.

(b) The boats shall be given time to respond. A boat involved in the incident may respond by promptly taking an appropriate penalty or clearly indicating that she will do so as soon as possible.

(c) If the protested boat fails to respond, the protesting boat may request a decision by conspicuously displaying a yellow flag and hailing ‘Umpire’.

(d) An umpire shall then decide whether to penalize any boat.

(e) An umpire shall signal a decision in compliance with rule D2.4.

(f) If a boat hails for an umpire decision without complying with the protest procedure, an umpire shall signal No Penalty

(g) A boat penalized by an umpire shall take a Two-Turns Penalty.

D2.6 Limited Umpiring
This rule applies only if the sailing instructions so state and it then changes rules D2.2 and D2.5.
When a boat protests and either there is no decision signalled, or an umpire displays a yellow flag with one long sound signalling he has insufficient facts to make a decision, the protesting boat is entitled to a hearing.

D2.7 Limitations on Other Proceedings
A decision, action or non-action of an umpire shall not be

(a) grounds for redress,

(b) subject to an appeal under rule 70, or

(c) grounds for abandoning a race after it has started.

The protest committee may decide to consider giving redress when it believes that an official boat, including an umpire boat, may have seriously interfered with a competing boat.

D3 SCORING A RACE
D3.1 (a) Each boat finishing a race shall be scored points equal to her finishing place. All other boats shall be scored points equal to the number of boats entitled to race.

(b) When a boat is scored OCS, 10 points shall be added to her score unless she retired as soon as possible after the starting signal.

(c) When a boat fails to take a penalty imposed by an umpire at or near the finishing line, she shall be scored points for last place and other scores shall be adjusted accordingly.

(d) When a protest committee decides that a boat that is a party to a protest hearing has broken a rule and is not exonerated,

(1) if the boat has not taken a penalty, 6 points shall be added to her score;

(2) if the boat’s team has gained an advantage despite any penalty taken or imposed, the boat’s score may be increased;

(3) when the boat has broken rule 1 or 2, rule 14 when she has caused damage or injury, or a rule when not racing, half or more race wins may be deducted from her team, or no penalty may be imposed. Race wins deducted shall not be awarded to any other team.

D3.2 When all boats on one team have finished, retired or failed to start, the other team’s boats racing at that time shall be scored the points they would have received had they finished.

D3.3 The team with the lower total points wins the race. If the totals are equal, the team that does not have first place wins.

D4 SCORING A SERIES

D4.1 Terminology
In a round-robin series teams are assigned to one or more groups and scheduled to sail against all other teams in their group one or more times. In a knock-out series teams are scheduled to sail in matches; a match is one or more races between two teams.

D4.2 Terminating a Series
(a) The race committee may terminate a series at any reasonable time taking into account the entries, weather, time constraints and other relevant factors.

(b) When a round-robin series is terminated, any round-robin in the series in which 80% or more of the full schedule of races has been completed shall be scored as complete; if fewer races have been completed, the round-robin shall be excluded from the results, but may be used to break ties.

D4.3 Scoring a Round-Robin Series
In a round-robin series the teams shall be ranked in order of number of race wins, highest number first. If the teams in a round-robin group have not completed an equal number of races, they shall be ranked in order of the percentage of races won, highest number first.

D4.4 Ties in a Completed Round-Robin Series
Ties in a completed round-robin series shall be broken using only the results in the series, in order,

(a) the highest number of race wins in all races between the tied teams;

(b) the lowest total points scored in all races between the tied teams;

(c) if two teams remain tied, the winner of the last race between them;

(d) the lowest average points scored in all races against common opponents;

(e) a sail-off if possible, otherwise a game of chance.

If a tie is partially broken by one of these, the remaining tie shall be broken by starting again at rule D4.4(a).

D4.5 Ties in an Incomplete Round-Robin Series
If a round-robin series is not completed, teams shall be ranked according to the results from all completed round-robins in the series. Ties shall be broken whenever possible using the results from races between the tied teams in the incomplete round-robin. Other ties shall be broken in accordance with rule D4.4.

D4.6 Scoring a Knock-Out Series
The winner of a match is the first team to score the number of race wins stated in the sailing instructions.

D4.7 Incomplete Knock-Out Series
If a match in a knock-out series is not completed (including 0-0), the result of the match shall be determined using, in order,

(a) the higher number of race wins in the incomplete match;

(b) the higher number of race wins in all races between the teams in the event;

(c) the higher place in the most recent round-robin series, applying D4.4(a) if necessary;

(d) the winner of the most recent race between the teams.

If this rule fails to determine a result, the series shall be tied unless the sailing instructions provide for some other result.

D5 BREAKDOWNS WHEN BOATS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE ORGANIZING AUTHORITY
D5.1 Rule D5 applies when boats are supplied by the organizing authority.

D5.2 When a boat suffers a breakdown in the racing area, she may request a score change by displaying a red flag at the first reasonable opportunity after the breakdown until it is acknowledged by the race committee or by an umpire. If possible, she shall continue racing.

D5.3 The race committee shall decide requests for a score change in accordance with rules D5.4 and

5.5. It may take evidence in any way it considers appropriate and may communicate its decision orally.

D5.4 When the race committee decides that the team’s finishing position was made significantly worse, that the breakdown was through no fault of the crew, and that in the same circumstances a reasonably competent crew would not have been able to avoid the breakdown, it shall make as equitable a decision as possible. This may be to abandon and resail the race or, when the boat’s finishing position was predictable, award her points for that position. Any doubt about a boat’s position when she broke down shall be resolved against her.

D5.5 A breakdown caused by defective supplied equipment or a breach of a rule by an opponent shall not normally be determined to be the fault of the crew, but one caused by careless handling, capsizing or a breach by a boat on the same team shall be. If there is doubt, it shall be presumed that the crew are not at fault.