APPENDIX C - MATCH RACING RULES
Match races shall be sailed under The Racing Rules of Sailing as changed by this appendix. Matches shall be umpired unless the notice of race and sailing instructions state otherwise.
‘Competitor’ means the skipper, team or boat as appropriate
the event. ‘Flight’ means two or more matches started in the same
C2 CHANGES TO THE DEFINITIONS AND THE RULES OF PARTS 2 AND 4
C2.1 The definition Finish is changed to
A boat finishes when any part of her hull, or crew or
equipment in normal position, crosses the finishing line in the direction of
the course from the last mark after completing any penalties. However,
when penalties are cancelled under rule C7.2(d) after one or both boats have
finished each shall be recorded as
finished when she crossed the line.
C2.2 Add to the definition Proper Course: ‘A boat taking a penalty or manoeuvring to take a penalty is not sailing a proper course.’
C2.3 The last sentence of the definition Clear Ahead and Clear Astern; Overlap is changed to ‘These terms do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless either rule 18 applies or both boats are subject to rule 13.2.’
C2.4 Rule 13 is changed to
13 WHILE TACKING OR GYBING
13.1 After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course.
13.2 After the foot of the mainsail of a boat sailing downwind crosses the centreline she shall keep clear of other boats until her mainsail has filled.
13.3 While rule 13.1 or 13.2 applies, rules 10, 11 and 12 do not. However, if two boats are subject to rule 13.1 or 13.2 at the same time, the one on the other’s port side or the one astern shall keep clear.
C2.5 Rules 16.2 and 17.2 are deleted.
C2.6 Rule 18.3 is changed to
If two boats were on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack within the two-length zone to pass a rounding mark, and if thereafter the other boat cannot by luffing avoid becoming overlapped inside her, the boat that tacked shall keep clear and rules 15 and 18.2 do not apply. If the other boat can by luffing avoid becoming overlapped inside her then rule 18.2(c) shall apply as if the boats were clear ahead and clear astern at the two-length zone.
C2.7 When rule 19.1 applies, the following arm signals by the helmsman are required in addition to the hails:
(a) for ‘Room to tack’, repeatedly and clearly pointing to windward; and
(b) for ‘You tack’, repeatedly and clearly pointing at the other boat and waving the arm to windward.
C2.8 Rule 20.2 is changed to ‘A boat taking a penalty shall keep clear of one that is not.’
C2.9 Rule 22.1 is changed to ‘If reasonably possible, a boat not racing shall not interfere with a boat that is racing or an umpire boat.’
C2.10 Rule 22.2 is changed to ‘Except when sailing a proper course, a boat shall not interfere with a boat taking a penalty or sailing on another leg.’
C2.11 Add new rule 22.3: ‘When boats in different matches meet, any change of course by either boat shall be consistent with complying with a rule or trying to win her own match.’
C2.12 Add to the preamble of Part 4: ‘Rule 42 shall also apply between the warning and preparatory signals.’
C2.13 Rule 42.2(d) is changed to ‘sculling: repeated movement of the helm to propel the boat forward;’.
C3 RACE SIGNALS AND CHANGES TO RELATED RULES
C3.1 Starting Signals
The signals for starting a match shall be as follows. Times shall be taken from the visual signals; the failure of a sound signal shall be disregarded. If more than one match will be sailed, the starting signal for one match shall be the warning signal for the next match.
Time in minutes
Flag F displayed
Flag F removed
Numeral pennant displayed*
Flag P displayed
Blue or yellow flag or both displayed**
End of pre-start entry time
Warning and preparatory signals removed
*Within a flight, numeral pennant 1 means Match 1, pennant 2 means Match 2, etc., unless the sailing instructions state otherwise.
** These signals shall be made only if one or both boats fail to comply with rule C4.2. The flag(s) shall be displayed until the umpires have signalled a penalty or for one minute, whichever is earlier.
C3.2 Changes to Related Rules
(a) Rule 29.1 is changed to
(1) When at a boat’s starting signal any part of her hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or its extensions, the race committee shall promptly display a blue or yellow flag identifying the boat with one sound. The flag shall be displayed until the boat is completely on the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions or until two minutes after her starting signal, whichever is earlier.
(2) When at a boat’s starting signal no part of her hull,
crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or its extensions,
and before she starts she sails to the course side across an extension,
the race committee shall promptly display a blue or yellow flag identifying
the boat. The flag shall be displayed until the boat is
completely on the pre-start side of the starting line or its extensions or until two minutes after her starting signal, whichever is earlier.
(b) In the race signal AP the last sentence is changed
attention signal will be made 1 minute after removal unless at that time the race is postponed again or abandoned.’
(c) In the race signal N the last sentence is changed to ‘The attention signal will be made 1 minute after removal unless at that time the race is abandoned again or postponed.’
C3.3 Finishing Line Signals
The race signal Blue flag or shape shall not be used.
C4 REQUIREMENTS BEFORE THE START
C4.1 At her preparatory signal, each boat shall
be outside the line that is
at a 90º angle to the starting line through the starting mark at her
assigned end. In the race schedule pairing list, the boat listed on the left-hand side is assigned the port end and shall display a blue flag at her stern while racing. The other boat is assigned the starboard end and shall display a yellow flag at her stern while racing.
C4.2 Within the two-minute period following her preparatory signal, a boat shall cross and clear the starting line, the first time from the course side to the pre-start side.
C5 SIGNALS BY UMPIRES
C5.1 A green and white flag with one long sound means ‘No penalty.’
C5.2 A blue or yellow flag identifying a boat with one long sound means ‘The identified boat shall take a penalty by complying with rule C7.’
C5.3 A red flag with or soon after a blue or yellow flag with one long sound means ‘The identified boat shall take a penalty by complying with rule C7.3(d).’
C5.4 A black flag with a blue or yellow flag and one long sound means ‘The identified boat is disqualified, and the match is terminated and awarded to the other boat.’
C5.5 One short sound means ‘A penalty is now completed.’
C5.6 Repetitive short sounds mean ‘A boat is no longer taking a penalty and the penalty remains.’
C5.7 A blue or yellow flag or shape displayed from an umpire boat means ‘The identified boat has an outstanding penalty.’
C6 PROTESTS AND REQUESTS FOR REDRESS BY BOATS
C6.1 A boat may protest another boat
(a) under a rule of Part 2, except rule 14, by clearly displaying flag Y immediately after an incident in which she was involved;
(b) under any rule not listed in rule C6.1(a) or C6.2 by clearly displaying a red flag as soon as possible after the incident.
C6.2 A boat may not protest another boat under
(a) rule 14, unless damage or injury results;
(b) a rule of Part 2, unless she was involved in the incident;
(c) rule 31 or 42; or
(d) rule C4 or C7.
C6.3 A boat intending to request redress because
of circumstances that arise before she finishes or retires shall clearly
display a red flag as soon as possible after she becomes aware of those circumstances,
but not later than two minutes after finishing or retiring.
C6.4 (a) A boat protesting under rule C6.1(a) shall remove flag Y before or as soon as possible after the umpires’ signal.
(b) A boat protesting under rule C6.1(b) or requesting
redress under rule C6.3 shall, for her protest or request to be valid,
keep her red flag displayed until she has so informed the
umpires after finishing or retiring. No written protest or request for redress is required.
C6.5 Umpire Decisions
(a) After flag Y is displayed, the umpires shall decide whether to penalize any boat. They shall signal their decision in compliance with rule C5.1, C5.2 or C5.3.
(b) The red-flag penalty in rule C5.3 shall be used when a boat has gained control as a result of breaking a rule, but the umpires are not certain that the conditions for an additional umpire-initiated penalty have been fulfilled.
C6.6 Protest Committee Decisions
(a) The protest committee may take evidence in any way it considers appropriate and may communicate its decision orally.
(b) If the protest committee decides that a breach of a rule has had no significant effect on the outcome of the match, it may
(1) impose a penalty of one point or part of one point;
(2) order a resail; or
(3) make another arrangement it decides is equitable, which may be to impose no penalty.
(c) The penalty for breaking rule 14 when damage or injury
results will be at the discretion of the protest committee, and may
include exclusion from further races in the event.
C7 PENALTY SYSTEM
C7.1 Rule Changes
Rules 31.2 and 44 are deleted.
C7.2 All Penalties
(a) A penalized boat may delay taking a penalty within the limitations of rule C7.3 and shall take it as follows:
(1) When on a leg of the course to a windward mark, she shall gybe and, as soon as reasonably possible, luff to a close-hauled course.
(2) When on a leg of the course to a leeward mark
finishing line, she shall tack and, as soon as reasonably possible, bear away to a downwind course.
(b) Add to rule 2: ‘When racing, a boat may wait for an umpire’s decision before taking a penalty.’
(c) A boat completes a leg of the course when her bow crosses the extension of the line from the previous mark through the mark she is rounding, or on the last leg when she finishes.
(d) A penalized boat shall not be recorded as having finished until she takes her penalty and sails completely to the course side of the line and then finishes, unless the penalty is cancelled before or after she crosses the finishing line.
(e) If a boat has one or two outstanding penalties and the other boat in her match is penalized, one penalty for each boat shall be cancelled except that a red-flag penalty shall not cancel an outstanding penalty.
(f) If a boat has more than two outstanding penalties, the umpires shall signal her disqualification under rule C5.4.
C7.3 Penalty Limitations
(a) A boat taking a penalty that includes a tack shall have the spinnaker head below the main-boom gooseneck from the time she passes head to wind until she is on a close-hauled course.
(b) No part of a penalty may be taken within two of a boat’s hull lengths of a rounding mark.
(c) If a boat has one outstanding penalty, she may take the penalty any time after starting and before finishing. If a boat has two outstanding penalties, she shall take one of them as soon as reasonably possible, but not before starting.
(d) When the umpires display a red flag with or soon after
penalty flag, the penalized boat shall take a penalty as soon
as reasonably possible, but not before starting.
C7.4 Taking and Completing Penalties
(a) When a boat with an outstanding penalty is on a leg to a windward mark and gybes, or is on a leg to a leeward mark or the finishing line and passes head to wind, she is taking a penalty.
(b) When a boat taking a penalty either does not take the penalty correctly or does not complete the penalty as soon as reasonably possible, she is no longer taking a penalty. The umpires shall signal this as required by rule C5.6.
(c) The umpire boat for each match shall display blue or yellow flags or shapes, each flag or shape indicating one outstanding penalty. When a boat has taken a penalty, or a penalty has been cancelled, one flag or shape shall be removed. Failure of the umpires to display or remove flags or shapes shall not change the number of penalties outstanding.
C8 PENALTIES INITIATED BY UMPIRES
C8.1 Rule Changes
(a) Rules 60.2(a) and 60.3(a) do not apply to rules for which penalties may be imposed by umpires.
(b) Rule 64.1(b) is changed so that the provision for exonerating a boat may be applied by the umpires without a hearing, and it takes precedence over any conflicting rule of this appendix.
C8.2 When the umpires decide that a boat has broken
rule 31, 42, C4, C7.3(c) or C7.3(d) she shall be penalized by signalling her
under rule C5.2 or C5.3. However, a boat that displays an incorrect flag or
does not display the correct flag shall be warned orally and given an
opportunity to correct the error before being penalized.
C8.3 When the umpires decide that a boat has
(a) gained an advantage by breaking a rule after allowing for a penalty,
(b) deliberately broken a rule, or
(c) committed a breach of sportsmanship,
she shall be penalized under rule C5.2, C5.3 or C5.4.
C8.4 If the umpires or protest committee members decide that a boat may have broken a rule other than those listed in rules C6.1(a) and C6.2, they shall so inform the protest committee for its action under rule 60.3 and rule C6.6 when appropriate.
C8.5 When, after one boat has started, the umpires are satisfied that the other boat will not start, they may signal under rule C5.4 that the boat that did not start is disqualified and the match is terminated.
C9 REQUESTS FOR REDRESS OR REOPENING; APPEALS; OTHER PROCEEDINGS
C9.1 There shall be no request for redress or an appeal from a decision made under rule C5, C6, C7 or C8. In rule 66 the third sentence is changed to ‘A party to the hearing may not ask for a reopening.’
C9.2 A competitor may not base a request for redress on a claim that an action by an official boat was improper. The protest committee may decide to consider giving redress in such circumstances but only if it believes that an official boat, including an umpire boat, may have seriously interfered with a competing boat.
C9.3 No proceedings of any kind may be taken in relation to any action or non-action by the umpires, except as permitted in rule C9.2.
C10.1 The winning competitor of each match scores one point (half of one point each for a dead heat); the loser scores no points.
C10.2 When a competitor withdraws from part of an event the scores of all completed races shall stand.
C10.3 When a multiple round robin is terminated with an incomplete round robin, only one point shall be available for all the matches sailed between any two competitors, as follows:
Number of matches completed
between any two competitors
Points for each win
C10.4 In a round-robin series,
(a) competitors shall be placed in order of their total
highest score first;
(b) a competitor who has won a match but is disqualified for breaking a rule against a competitor in another match shall lose the point for that match (but the losing competitor shall not be awarded the point); and
(c) the overall position between competitors who have sailed in different groups shall be decided by the highest score.
C10.5 In a knockout series the sailing instructions shall state the minimum number of points required to win a series between two competitors. When a knockout series is terminated it shall be decided in favour of the competitor with the higher score.
C11.1 Round-Robin Series
A round-robin series means a grouping of competitors who all sail against each other one or more times. Each separate stage identified in the event format shall be a separate round-robin series irrespective of the number of times each competitor sails against each other competitor in that stage.
Ties between two or more competitors in a round-robin series
shall be broken by the following methods, in order, until all ties are
broken. When one or more ties are only partially broken, rules C11.1(a) to C11.1(e) shall be reapplied to them. Ties shall be decided in favour of the competitor(s) who
(a) placed in order, has the highest score in the matches between the tied competitors.
(b) when the tie is between two competitors in a multiple round robin, has won the last match between the two competitors.
(c) has the most points against the competitor placed highest
the round-robin series or, if necessary, second highest, and so on until the tie is broken. When two separate ties have to be
resolved but the resolution of each depends upon resolving
the other, the following principles shall be used in the rule C11.1(c) procedure:
(1) the higher-place tie shall be resolved before the lower- place tie, and
(2) all the competitors in the lower-place tie shall be treated as a single competitor for the purposes of rule C11.1(c).
(d) after applying rule C10.4(c), has the highest place
different groups, irrespective of the number of competitors in each group.
(e) has the highest place in the most recent stage of the event (fleet race, round robin, etc.).
C11.2 Knockout Series
Ties (including 0–0) between two competitors in a knockout series shall be broken by the following methods, in order, until the tie is broken. The tie shall be decided in favour of the competitor who
(a) has the highest place in the most recent round-robin series, applying rule C11.1 if necessary;
(b) has won the most recent match in the event between the tied competitors.
C11.3 Remaining Ties
When rule C11.1 or C11.2 does not resolve a tie,
(a) if the tie needs to be resolved for a later stage of the event (or another event for which the event is a direct qualifier), the tie shall be broken by a sail-off when practicable. When the race committee decides a sail-off is not practicable the tie shall be broken by a draw.
(b) to decide the winner of an event that is not a direct
for another event, or the overall position between competitors eliminated in one round of a knockout series, a sail-off may be used (but not a draw).
(c) when a tie is not broken any monetary prizes or ranking points for tied places shall be added together and divided equally among the tied competitors.
Note: A Standard Notice of Race and Standard Sailing Instructions for match racing are available from the ISAF.