Team races shall be sailed under The Racing Rules of Sailing as changed by this appendix. If umpires will be used the sailing instructions shall so state.


D1.1 Changes to the Rules of Part 2

(a) Rule 17.2 is changed to ‘Except on a beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.’

(b) The first sentence of rule 18.2(c) is changed to ‘If a boat was clear ahead at the time she reached the two-length zone, or she later became clear ahead when another boat passed head to wind, the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear.’

(c) Rule 18.4 is deleted.

(d) Add new rule 22.3: ‘A boat that has finished shall not act to interfere with a boat that has not finished.’

(e) Add new rule 22.4: ‘When boats in different races meet, any change of course by either boat shall be consistent with complying with a rule or trying to win her own race.’

D1.2 Other Additional Rules

(a) There shall be no penalty for breaking a rule of Part 2 when the incident is between boats on the same team and there is no

(b) Add to rule 41: ‘However, a boat may receive help from
another boat on her team provided electronic communication is not used.’

(c) A boat is not eligible for redress based on damage or injury caused by another boat on her team.


D2.1 Protests and Exoneration

(a) The third sentence of rule 61.1(a) and all of rule 61.1(a)(2) are deleted.

(b) A boat that, while racing, may have broken a rule of Part 2 (except rule 14 when she has caused damage or injury) or rule 42 may take a penalty complying with rule 44.2, except that only one turn is required.

(c) The sailing instructions may state that rule D2.4(b) applies to all protests.

D2.2 Umpired Races

Races to be umpired shall be identified either in the sailing instructions or by the display of flag U no later than the warning signal.

(a) When a boat protests under a rule of Part 2 or under rule 31.1, 42 or 44, she is not entitled to a hearing, except under rule 14 when there is damage or injury. Instead, when the protested boat fails either to acknowledge breaking a rule or to take
the appropriate penalty, the protesting boat may request a decision by conspicuously displaying a yellow flag and hailing

(b) An umpire shall signal a decision as follows:

(1) A green flag or a green and white flag means ‘No

(2) A red flag means ‘One or more boats are penalized.’ The umpire shall hail or signal to identify each boat to be

(c) A boat penalized under rule D2.2(b)(2) shall take a Two-Turns Penalty under rule 44.2.

(d) penalties initiated by umpires

When a boat

(1) breaks rule 31.1 or 42, or a rule of Part 2 through contact with another boat on her team, and does not take a

(2) fails to comply with rule D2.2(c);

(3) commits a breach of sportsmanship; or

(4) breaks rule 14 when damage or injury may have been caused;

or when a boat or her team gains an advantage despite taking
a penalty, an umpire may take action without a protest from
another boat. The umpire may impose a penalty of one or more turns, each including one tack and one gybe, signalled by
displaying a red flag and hailing the boat accordingly, or report the incident to the protest committee, signalled by displaying a black flag, or both.

D2.3 Alternative Umpiring Rules

Each of these rules applies only if the sailing instructions so state.

(a) single-flag protest procedure

Rule D2.2(a) is replaced by

When a boat protests under a rule of Part 2 or under rule 31.1, 42 or 44, she is not entitled to a hearing, except
under rule 14 when there is damage or injury. Instead, a boat involved in the incident may promptly acknowledge breaking a rule and take the appropriate penalty. If no
boat takes a penalty, an umpire shall decide whether any boat has broken a rule, and shall signal the decision in compliance with rule D2.2(b).

(b) races with limited umpiring

Rule D2.2 applies, except that when a boat complies with rule D2.2(a) and either there is no decision signalled or an umpire displays a yellow flag signalling he has insufficient facts to
decide, the protesting boat is entitled to a hearing.

D2.4 Additional Protest and Redress Rules When Races Are Umpired

(a) Neither the race committee nor the protest committee shall protest a boat for breaking a rule listed in rule D2.2(a), except under rule 14 when there is damage or injury.

(b) Protests and requests for redress need not be in writing. The protest committee may take evidence in any way it considers appropriate and may communicate its decision orally.

(c) There shall be no request for redress or appeal by a boat arising from a decision, action or non-action by an umpire. The protest committee may decide to consider giving redress when it
believes that an official boat, including an umpire boat, may have seriously interfered with a competing boat.


(a) Each boat finishing a race, whether or not rule 28.1 has been complied with, shall be scored points equal to her finishing place. All other boats shall be scored points equal to the number of boats entitled to race.

(b) In addition, a boat’s points shall be increased as follows:

Rule broken

Penalty points

Rule 28.1 when as a result she or her team has gained an advantage


Any other rule broken while racing for which a penalty has not been taken


(c) After a hearing the protest committee may penalize as follows:

(1) When a boat has broken a rule and as a result her team has gained an advantage, it may increase that boat’s points.

(2) When a boat has broken rule 1 or 2, rule 14 when she has caused damage or injury, or a rule when not racing, it may penalize the boat’s team by half or more race wins, or it may impose no penalty.

(d) The team with the lower total points wins the race. If the totals are equal, the team that did not have the first-place boat wins.

D3.2 When all boats on one team have finished, retired or failed to start, the race committee may stop the race. The other team’s boats racing at that time shall be scored the points they would have received had they finished.


D4.1 When two or more teams are competing in a series, the winner shall be the team scoring the greatest number of race wins. The other teams shall be ranked in order of number of race wins.

D4.2 When necessary, ties in a completed series shall be broken using, in order,

(a) the number of races won when the tied teams met;

(b) the points scored when the tied teams met;

(c) if two teams remain tied, the last race between them;

(d) total points scored in all races against common opponents;

(e) a sail-off if possible, otherwise a game of chance.

If a multiple tie is only partially resolved by one of these, then the remaining tie shall be broken by starting again at rule D4.2(a).

D4.3 If a series is not completed, teams shall be ranked according to the results from completed rounds, and ties shall be broken whenever possible using the results from races between the tied teams in the incomplete round. If no round has been completed, teams shall be ranked in order of their percentages of races won. Other ties shall be broken as provided in rule D4.2.


D5.1 A supplied boat suffering a breakdown, and seeking redress as a result, shall display a red flag at the first reasonable opportunity and, if possible, continue racing. The race committee shall decide redress as provided in rules D5.2 and D5.3.

D5.2 When the race committee decides that the boat’s finishing position was made significantly worse, that the breakdown was through no fault of the crew, and that in the same circumstances a reasonably competent crew would not have been able to avoid the breakdown, it shall make as equitable a decision as possible. This may be to order the race to be resailed or, when the boat’s finishing position was predictable, award her points for that position. Any doubt about a boat’s position when she broke down shall be resolved against her.

D5.3 A breakdown caused by defective supplied equipment or a breach of a rule by an opponent shall not normally be determined to be the fault of the crew, but one caused by careless handling, capsizing or a breach by a boat on the same team shall be. Any doubt about the fault of the crew shall be resolved in the boat’s favour.